Culturally Responsive Teaching  Online

Articles and Publications

"Culturally Relevant Teaching is a pedagogy that empowers students intellectually, socially, emotionally, and politically by using cultural referents to impart knowledge, skills, and attitudes."


First introduced by Dr.Gloria Ladson-Billings in 1992 as "culturally relevant teaching," and now also referred to as "culturally responsive teaching," these terms are becoming more widely known and accepted in the education field. For example, the U.S. Department of Education's equity assistance centers, such as the Equity Alliance at ASU help states, school districts and schools to establish the conditions for equitable educational outcomes for all students, using cultural responsiveness as one of the measures of the needed capabilities of teachers, principals and school communities as a whole. Many leading scholars have added to the quality research and study Dr. Ladson-Billings originally published. According to John Uzo Ogbu, "A culturally relevant pedagogy must provide a way for students to maintain their cultural identity while succeeding academically". This site is one of the most comprehensive online resource guide for educators

Most comprehensive online guide on Cultural Responsive Instruction.

Please bookmark this site and share with other educators

Culturally Responsive Teaching Resources

Culturally Responsive Teaching
Product Resources


Culture is Central to Learning. It plays a role not only in communicating and receiving information, but also in shaping the thinking process of groups and individuals. A pedagogy that acknowledges, responds to, and celebrates fundamental cultures offers full, equitable access to education for students from all cultures.

Culturally Responsive Teaching is a pedagogy that recognizes the importance of including students' cultural references in all aspects of learning (Ladson-Billings,1994).


Gay (2000) Defines Culturally Responsive Teaching as using the cultural knowledge, prior experiences, and performance styles of diverse students to make learning more appropriate and effective for them; it teaches to and through the strengths of these students.


The U.S. Department of Education predicts that by the year 2010, minority populations will become the majority populations in our schools (U.S. Department of Education, 2002).


In this article I discuss the concept of cultural responsiveness in literacy instruction. My thesis is that culturally responsive instruction can bring students of diverse backgrounds to high levels of literacy by promoting engagement through activities that reflect the values, knowledge, and structures of interaction that students bring from the home. Culturally responsive instruction may create new literacies in classrooms, literacies that connect to students’ home backgrounds.


This approach is called culturally responsive teaching, which is defined by Ladson-Billings (1995a) as possessing these eight principles:


In this article, a case is made for improving the school success of ethnically diverse students through culturally responsive teaching and for preparing teachers in preservice education programs with the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to do this. The ideas presented here are brief sketches of more thorough explanations included in my recent book, Culturally Responsive Teaching: Theory, Research, and Practice (2000).



Culturally Responsive Teaching is a research-based teaching method that can help close achievement gaps. Teachers who use culturally responsive instruction recognize students' cultural strengths and experiences and use them as tools to achieve mastery of new knowledge and skills.


Effective strategies are examined to improve cross-cultural communication among students.


Our classrooms are increasingly becoming more culturally diverse. To teach all children well, teachers need to know the particular values, traditions, communication patterns, and learning styles of all of their students. That is where proper use of cultural responsive teaching will help you connect with all students. This issue of the ASSIST newsletter features tools that will help you with this goal.


My theme for these columns is big ideas that changed my thinking as an educator. Many teachers I meet are intrigued by the concept of culturally responsive instruction, and that is the fourth big idea I want to share with you. These teachers work in classrooms with students of diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds, and they sense that culturally responsive instruction offers a means of creating a learning environment where all students can become excellent readers and writers.


Developing Culturally Responsive Lesson Plans


Culturally responsive, standards-based instruction (CRSBI) is a teaching style that validates and incorporates students’ cultural background, ethnic history and current societal interests into daily, standards-based instruction. It addresses socio-emotional needs and uses ethnically and culturally diverse material (Banks, 1991; Gay, 2000).


Why is culturally responsive instruction important within an RTI Framework?


Culturally Responsive Instruction-The CREATE model asks teachers to provide culturally responsive instruction for their students.


Culturally Responsive Teaching means that the teacher will teach in a way that students can understand. Therefore, the teacher must find a way to take the standards based content or curriculum and make it accessible to students. This means incorporating student’s daily life, prior knowledge, music, sports, language, and any other interests into the curriculum so that the student feels comfortable enough to try and learn the content because it appears easy to understand.


Addressing Diversity in Schools.     Joint presentation titled “Addressing Diversity in Schools:Cultural Responsive Pedagogy” by Heraldo V.Richard of Austin Peay State University,Ayanna F.Brown of Vanderbilt University and Timothy B.Forde of Buffalo State College.



Presentation titled ”Becoming Culturally Responsive Educator:Rethinking Teacher Education Pedagogy” by Dr.Cathy Kea North Carolina A&T University, Dr. Gloria D. Campbell-Whatley University of North Carlonia-Charlotte and Dr.Heraldo V.Richards Austin Peay State University


“Culturally Responsive Differentiation Instruction” by Jennifer J.Huber. Ph.D. Equity Alliance at ASU




“Cultural Responsive Leadership: A Cognitive Approach” by Elizabeth B. Kozleski


“Preparing for Culturally Responsive Teaching” by Geneva Gay, University of Washington, Seattle. In this article a case is made for improving ethnically diverse students through culturally responsive teaching.


Culturally Responsive Teaching in Special Education for ethnically diverse students: Setting the stage” by Geneva Gay, University of Washington, Seattle. Author argues that without cultural responsive teaching education can never be the best it should for students who are not part of the majority or mainstream of schools or society.


“Preparing Culturally Responsive Teachers: Rethinking the Curriculum” by Ana Maria Villegas and Tamara Lucas


“Urban Teachers use of Culturally Responsive Management Strategies” by Dave F.Brown. This article describes the management strategies of

13 1st- through 12th-grade urban teachers from seven cities throughout the United States.


“Toward aTheory of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy” Gloria Ladson-Billings,University of Wisconsin-Madison. n. This article attempts to challenge notions about the intersection of culture and teaching that rely solely on microanalytic or macroanalytic perspectives.


“But That's Just Good Teaching! The Case for Culturally Relevant Pedagogy” by Gloria Ladson-Billing



“DIVERSITY WITHIN UNITY: Essential Principles for Teaching and Learningin a Multicultural Society” By James A. Banks,Peter Cookson, Geneva Gay, Willis D. Hawley, Jacqueline Jordan Irvine, Sonia Nieto, Janet Ward Schofield, Walter G. Stephan



“Creating Culturally Responsive, Inclusive Classrooms” Winifred Montgomery



Rutgers University. The purpose of this article is to stimulate discussion of culturally responsive classroom management (CRCM)


Ebonics and Culturally Responsive Instruction: What should teacher do. By Lisa Delpit



Culturally Responsive Practice and Collaborative Research in a Primary Classroom. By Melissa J. Rickey, Cheryl Silcox from Faculty Symposium.

Genesis of the project: What does it mean to be a culturally responsive teacher in Alaska has developed over the past two years.



Toward the Formation of Culturally Responsive Teacher Communities. By Rosalie M Romano and Molly Lawrence



Culturally Responsive Instruction as a Dimension of New Literacies. By  Kathryn H. Au.  Discussion of the concept of cultural responsiveness in literacy instruction  


Professional Development for Culturally Responsive Instruction: A Promising Practice for Addressing the Disproportionate Representation of Students of Color in Special Education. By Deborah L. Voltz, Nettye Brazil, e$ Renee' Scott. This paper describes the implementation and outcomes of a teacher-directedp rofessional development

program designed to increase teachers' awareness of culturally influenced learning and behavior

differences in the classroom. The impact of the project on teachers' conceptualization of teaching with a

multicultural perspectivJe and the resulting implications for instruction and referral practices was assessed.


Multiple Learning and Teaching Approaches that Respond to their Diversity. By NMSA Research Committee. (2003). Multiple learning and teaching approaches that respond to their diversity. In Research and resources in support of this we believe (pp. 20-24; 26-27). Westerville,OH: National Middle School Association.


STUDENTS’ AND TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF CULTURALLY RESPONSIVE TEACHING: A CASE STUDY OF AN URBAN MIDDLE SCHOOL. By Ellen Mary Curtin, B.Ed., M.Ed. The purpose of this study was to understand the educational experiences and perceptions of selected immigrant students and their mainstream teachers. Following the method of case study design, the educational experiences of English Language Learner (ELL) students were examined in the naturally occurring context of the school and the classroom.



Preparing teachers for Culturally Responsive teaching in city schools. By Christine Sleeter,California State University, Montery Bay.


Culturally Responsive Best Practices in Addressing Disproportionality: by Renae Azziz, Ed.S, NCSP. Review promising practices for addressing disproportionality, culturally responsive systems, culturally responsive pedagogy, culturally responsive environments and how to apply awareness knowledge.


Creating Culturally Responsive Schools: by Barbara Bazron, David Osher, and Steve Fleischman. Given the increased diversity of the student population, how can schools ensure that all students master the social, emotional, intellectual, and technical competencies necessary to fulfull these essential roles?


Enhancing Instruction to Connect with Diverse Audiences: by Lisa A. Guion and David C. Diehl. This paper is the first in a series of articles on planning programs to effectively reach diverse audiences


Culturally responsive character education: Murphy, Margarte Boles. The purpose of this project was to create a character education program that is culturally relevant for all students. The curriculum will provide teachers with lessons that will teach students a life skill while connecting the lessons to their culture.


Reflections on Culturally Responsive Teaching: Embedding Theory into Practices of Instructional and Behavioral Support Randall De Pry and Elaine Cheesman.  This paper offers reflections on the embedding of culturally responsive teaching practices into Response-to-Intervention (RtI) and School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SW-PBS) models. These types of systemic change models are increasingly being adopted by schools to address academic achievement and to foster a positive school climate.


Culturally Responsive Practices in Special Education for Diverse Students: Profiles of Successful Special Education Teachers. Written by Yojanna Cuenca-Sanchez George Mason University Dr. Thomas Scruggs


Addreses the need of diverse learners in physical activity and sport using culturally responsive practices:  by Brian Culp


CULTURAL RESPONSIVENESS, RACIAL IDENTITY AND ACADEMIC SUCCESS: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE. By By Mary Stone Hanley George Mason University and George W. Noblit University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. In June 2007, The Heinz Endowments asked Drs. Hanley and Noblit, faculty and scholars in curriculum and instruction and educational foundations, to conduct a review of the literature on a set of concepts and the connections among them: culturally responsive pedagogy, positive ethnic socialization, resilience and academic success, with some emphasis on arts programming.


Culturally Responsive Professional Development through Conceptual Change: A Case Study of Substitute Teachers in Urban School Districts. By Feola, Frank J.The purposes of this research were to analyze the influence of participants’ experiences on their culturally responsive pedagogical development and consider the policy implications for higher education, schools and school districts, and the state. Four substitute teachers from three urban school districts participated in a professional development experience—autodidactic cultural diversity development—to learn about culturally responsive pedagogy and implement it in their classrooms.


Isn’t Culturally Responsive Teaching just good teaching. By Kathyrn Au



culturally responsive product

Culturally Responsive Instruction:


Definitions and Cultural Considerations:Facts on why and how culture impacts learning

Hispanic Cultural Responsive Teaching Resources

“Culturally responsive school counseling for Hispanic/Latino students and families: the need for bilingual school counselors.” By: Sondra Smith-Adcock, M. Harry Daniels, Sang Min Lee, Jose Arley Villalba and Natalie Arce Indelicato. Abstract: Hispanic/Latino students are the largest minority school-age population (Pew Hispanic Center, 2005). In this study, pupil services administrators in Florida identified concerns about Hispanic/Latino children and families and the need for bilingual school counselors for growing numbers of Hispanic/Latino students. Administrators' perceptions of cultural barriers, which isolate students from the school environment, were strongly related to their perceived need for Spanish-speaking school counselors. School programs more often provided for Hispanic/Latino students were those that specifically addressed language barriers rather than counseling services that specifically addressed cultural barriers of Hispanic/Latino students.


“Effects of Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices on the Literacy Learning of Latino Students” Miriam Elizabeth Stroder Western Kentucky University





“Educating Hispanic Students: Effective Instructional Practices” by Yolanda N. Padrón, Hersh C. Waxman, & Héctor H. Rivera
University of Houston. CREDE researchers have synthesized the research on strategies that have been significant in advancing the achievement of these students. This brief presents these identified teaching practices, which can be applied in any classroom and are beneficial for all students, as well.

“Hispanic Parent Involvement in Early Childhood Programs” Linda M. Espinosa



©Culturally Responsive Teaching


Teaching African American Students: A Look at Instructional Methods and Cultural Differences by Adam Neely School of Education, Curriculum and Instruction Prof. Wheeler The College of William and Mary Williamsburg, VA. The purpose of this literature review is to show how African American students differ in relation to their peers in the classroom.  


School Snapshot: Focus on African American Culture  by Marge Scherer At Victor Berger Elementary School, the Curriculum is infused with African American content and the children are infused with pride.



Learning Styles of African American Children: A Review of the Literature and Interventions  Madge Gill Willis Nov 6, 2002 Jan Yuhas


STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING SCIENCE TO AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDENTS Great website with resources on teaching African American students


Addressing Over-Representation of African American Students in Special Education  by Quentin Lawson,  Leah Humphrey, Stephanie Wood-Garnett, Kayte Fearn, Charity Welch, Betty Greene-Bryant, Selete Avoké.



Creating a Culturally Responsive Learning Environment for African American Students by Mary F. Howard-Hamilton. (Excerpt) How African American and white students and faculty develop a strong identity and healthy interpersonal relationships is explored. Faculty are encouraged to engage students in dialogue about multicultural issues and adapt their teaching practices to create a culturally responsive learning environment for students and faculty.


Cultural Clash & Mismatch among African American Students A Theoretical Approach: by Marco Thompson & Richard Acevedo,The University of New Hampshire


Diary of a Mad Black Teacher: Preventing Disproportionate Placement of African American Learners. Presentation on how to prevent african american disproportionate placement

African American Cultural Responsive Teaching Resources

Home Submit Content